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固体氧化物电解CO2技术现状与前景

赵建军 甄文龙 吕功煊

赵建军, 甄文龙, 吕功煊. 固体氧化物电解CO2技术现状与前景[J]. 燃料化学学报. doi: 10.19906/j.cnki.JFCT.2022028
引用本文: 赵建军, 甄文龙, 吕功煊. 固体氧化物电解CO2技术现状与前景[J]. 燃料化学学报. doi: 10.19906/j.cnki.JFCT.2022028
ZHAO Jian-jun, ZHEN Wen-long, LU Gong-xuan. Solid oxide electrolysis of carbon dioxide: status and perspectives[J]. Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology. doi: 10.19906/j.cnki.JFCT.2022028
Citation: ZHAO Jian-jun, ZHEN Wen-long, LU Gong-xuan. Solid oxide electrolysis of carbon dioxide: status and perspectives[J]. Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology. doi: 10.19906/j.cnki.JFCT.2022028

固体氧化物电解CO2技术现状与前景

doi: 10.19906/j.cnki.JFCT.2022028
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划(2018YFB1502004),国家自然科学基金(22102200)和中国科学院特别研究助理资助项目(902022000025)资助
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    Tel/Fax:0931-4968178, E-mail: gxlu@licp.cas.cn(G. Lu).

  • 中图分类号: O646;TK02

Solid oxide electrolysis of carbon dioxide: status and perspectives

Funds: The work was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFB1502004), National Natural Science Foundation of China(22102200), Special Research Assistant Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (902022000025).
  • 摘要: 高温固体氧化物电解CO2技术可以同时实现CO2资源化利用与可再生能源电力的转化和储存,是一种高效、绿色、灵活的CO2转化利用技术。该技术可将CO2转化为CO和O2,在化工合成和载人深空探测领域极具很好的应用前景,正逐渐成为环境与能源领域的研究热点。本综述对高温固体氧化物电解CO2技术的原理、电堆系统、应用领域、效率、经济性以及减排潜力进行了分析与总结,并就目前限制固体氧化物电解CO2技术工业化应用的关键材料、性能衰减和制约因素等问题进行了重点分析,展望了发展趋势和研究重点,以期为相关领域的学者提供参考。
  • 图  1  低温电解与SOEC电解CO2的性能对比[11, 12]

    Figure  1  Competing electrolysis technologiesfor CO2splitting[11, 12]

    图  2  单个SOEC的结构与电解CO2过程示意图[11]

    Figure  2  Structure of SOEC and electrolytic CO2process[11]

    图  3  (A)电流-电压曲线,H2O/H2=1、CO2/CO=1,750 ℃;(B)稳定性测试,电流密度为1 A/cm2,温度850℃(2005)、800℃(2015)[12]

    Figure  3  (A) Current-voltage curves for cells at 750°C, measured in H2O/H2=1orCO2/CO=1; (B) Durability test of H2O electrolysis at1 A/cm2 on a cell measured at 850°C(2005) and 800°C(2015)[12].

    图  4  常压下CO2电解消耗的电能和热能与温度的关系[10]

    Figure  4  Energy demand for CO2 electrolysis under atmospheric pressure[10]

    图  5  不同固体氧化物电解质的离子电导率曲线[31]

    Figure  5  Ionic conductivity curves of electrolytes with different solid oxides[31]

    图  6  C的结构示意图(a)与测试组装示意图(b)[52]

    Figure  6  Schematic diagram of SDC structure (a) and of test assembly (b)[52]

    图  7  微管结构的Ni-YSZ阴极(a)横截面SEM照片和(b)截面放大图[18]

    Figure  7  SEM images of NiO-YSZ electrode: (a) overall cross-section, (b) magnified cross-section[18]

    图  8  (A)LSCF|LSGM|LSCM-Cu电池的SEM剖面图(a),LSCM-Cu阴极SEM放大图(b)[70];(B)不同Bi掺杂量的La0.75–xBixSr0.25Cr0.5Fe0.5O3–δ材料的HRTEM图[75];(C)Sr2Fe1.4Ru0.1Mo0.5O6–δ在氧化还原操作过程中表面形貌和RuFe合金脱溶的动态结构演变过程的STEM图[71]

    Figure  8  (A) Crosses-section SEM images of LSCF|LSGM|LSCM-Cu cell(a), enlarged SEM image of LSCM-Cu cathode(b)[70]; (B) HR-TEM for the reducedLa0.75–xBixSr0.25Cr0.5Fe0.5O3–δpowers[75]; (C) In situ secondary electron (SE)-STEM images of Sr2Fe1.4Ru0.1Mo0.5O6–δcatalysts[71].

    图  9  测试前(a)和经48 h测试后(b)的LSM电极/YSZ电解质界面的SEM照片[108]

    Figure  9  SEM images of LSM electrode/YSZ electrolyte interface before(a) and after 48 h test(b)[108]

    图  10  MOXIE制氧设备的组成结构图(a)与内部结构简化图(b)[146, 147]

    Figure  10  Structure diagram of MOXIE (a) and simplified view of the SOXE stack(b)[146, 147]

    图  11  基于SOEC的CO2转化利用与可再生能源转化及储存路线示意图

    Figure  11  Renewable energy conversion and storage route based on CO2 electrolysis

    表  1  不同陶瓷阴极的性能比较

    Table  1  Performance comparison of different cermet cathodes

    Cell componentFeed gasTemperature/℃Voltage/VCurrent/(A·cm–2)Ref.
    Ni-YSZ||YSZ||LSM-YSZ30%CO/CO28001.50.42[56]
    BaCO3-Ni-YSZ||YSZ||LSM-YSZ30%CO/CO28001.50.42[56]
    Ni-YSZ||YSZ||LSM-YSZ10%CO/CO28001.53.10[18]
    Ni-YSZ||YSZ||LSM30%CO/CO28501.20.80[51]
    Ni-YSZ||YSZ||LSCF25%CO/CO27501.20.36[66]
    Ni-YSZ||GDC||GDC-PrBaCo2O5+δ33%CO/CO27001.31.11[67]
    Ni-YSZ||YSZ||LSM-YSZ-RuO25%N2/CO28001.40.93[58]
    Ni-GDC||YSZ||GDC|LSCF30%N2/CO210001.00.9[55]
    Ag-GDC||YSZ||LSM|YSZCO28001.50.62[53]
    Ni-Cr2O3–δ||LSGM||50%CO/CO27502.00.9[54]
    Ni-Cr2O3–δ||LSGM||Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3–δCO/CO2/Ar8001.62.07[68]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同钙钛矿基复合氧化物为阴极电解CO2的性能比较

    Table  2  Performance of high CO2electrolysis with different perovskite-based cathodes

    Cathode materialsFeed gasTemperature/℃U/I(V/A·cm–2)Ref.
    La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3–δ-Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95CO28001.5/0.17[84]
    CeO2-La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3–δ-Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95CO28001.5/0.30[84]
    La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3–δ-Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95CO28001.5/0.41[85]
    Pr0.25(La0.75Sr0.25)0.75Cr0.5Mn0.5O3–δ-Gd0.1Ce0.9O1.95CO28001.5/0.67[85]
    La0.6Sr0.4Fe0.8Ni0.2O3−δCO28501.55/1.21[74]
    Gd0.2Ce0.8O1.9-Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6–δ5%N2/CO28001.6/0.446[86]
    Ni-doped La(Sr)FeO3–δ30%CO/CO28501.55/1.21[74]
    NiFe-Sr1.9Fe1.5Mo0.4Ni0.1O6–δCO28001.5/2.16[87]
    SrEu2Fe2O7CO28001.5/1.27[88]
    La0.9Sr0.8Co0.4Mn0.6O3.9−δF0.130%CO/CO28501.3/0.499[89]
    Sr2Fe1.4Mn0.1Mo0.5O6–δCO28001.5/1.35[90]
    Pt-SDC-La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3–δCO28001.6/1.42[91]
    NiFe-SDC-La0.6Sr0.4Fe0.8Mn0.2O3−δCO28501.5/1.4[92]
    Sr1.9La0.1Fe1.5Mo0.5O6–δCO28501.5/2.76[93]
    F-doped La1.6Sr0.4Fe0.8Ni0.2O3–δCO28501.8/1.92[94]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同CO2电解技术的对比

    Table  3  Comparison of different CO2 electrolysis technologies

    SOELTEMSEFLE
    Temperature/℃700–90025500–80025
    Faradaic efficiencynear100%60%–90%near100%60%–90%
    Current densityhighlowhighlow
    Energy efficiency>90%30%–50%>70%30%–50%
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2022-03-02
  • 录用日期:  2022-04-07
  • 修回日期:  2022-04-05
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-04-27

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