## 当期目录2021年 第49卷  第10期

2021, 49(10): 1-8.

2021, 49(10): 1402-1411. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5813(21)60156-1

A novel and highly active nitrogen-doped porous carbon-supported nickel catalyst Ni@N-PC was successfully developed by a thermolysis of nickel-based zeolitic imidazolate frameworks growing on both sides of graphitic carbon nitride and used for catalyzing hydroconversion of isopropanol soluble portion from ultrasonic extraction of high-temperature coal tar (ISPHTCT). The active nickel nanoparticles were mainly encapsulated on the top of carbon nanotubes and partially dispersed on the surface of carbon nanosheets. Naphthalen-1-ol was used as a model compound to investigate the catalytic hydroconversion activity under different reaction conditions and reveal the mechanism for catalytic hydroconversion. The ISPHTCT and catalytic hydroconversion products of ISPHTCT (ISPCHCP) were analyzed with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. The results show that 70% of naphthalen-1-ol was converted at 160 °C and completely converted at 200 °C for 120 min, and the ISPHTCT was greatly upgraded. A total of 180 organic compounds including 33 nitrogen-containing organic compounds, 11 sulfur-containing organic compounds and 39 oxygenates were identified in ISPHTCT, while no obvious nitrogen-containing organic compounds, sulfur-containing organic compounds and oxygenates were detected in ISPCHCP, indicating the excellent performance of Ni@N-PC for heteroatom removal. All the alkenes, cyclenes and alkynes were saturated and the majority of arenes were converted to cyclanes by catalytic hydroconversion over Ni@N-PC, which exhibited high catalytic hydrogenation activity.

2021, 49(10): 1421-1434. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5813(21)60127-5

Recently, the disposal of waste by beneficial and environmentally friendly methods has attracted great attention. In this work, we have studied the production of high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which have remarkable applications by catalytic pyrolysis of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) as an agricultural waste using a two-stage process. Various reaction factors including the effects of zeolite types (HZSM-5, HMOR, and HY), pyrolysis temperatures (450−700 °C), and SCB/ZSM-5 ratios (3−12) on SCB pyrolysis were investigated to generate CNTs from pyrolysis products. A Co-Mo/MgO catalyst was used for growing CNTs via the decomposition of pyrolysis products. The morphological structure and quality of CNTs were characterized using TEM and Raman spectroscopy, while the fresh Co-Mo/MgO catalyst was characterized by XRD and TPR analyses. The results showed that zeolite type, pyrolysis temperature, and SCB/ZSM-5 ratio had significant effects on the CNTs yield. The optimum carbon yield (24.9%) was achieved using the HZSM-5 catalyst at the pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and with the SCB/ZSM-5 ratio of 6. TEM observations confirmed the growth of bamboo-like carbon nanotubes (BCNTs) and carbon nano-onions (CNOs) in different proportions according to the reaction parameters. Also, CNTs with the largest diameter distribution range (7−76 nm) were produced using the SCB/ZSM-5 ratio of 6. Raman spectra demonstrated the production of high-quality CNTs under all studied conditions.

2021, 49(10): 1468-1486. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5813(21)60130-5

Effects of calcium content on the performance of HZSM-5 nanoparticles of 150 nm with Si/Al ratio = 230 in the methanol to olefin conversion were investigated. The parent and modified catalysts showed their largest yields of ethylene and propylene at 490 °C and lower WHSV (= 3.3 h−1). The selectivity for propylene over HZSM-5 was 0.45 at 490 °C whereas it was promoted to 0.51 over Ca27-HZSM-5 (Ca/Al = 27). With decreasing temperature from 490 to 440, and 390 °C, the yield of propylene and ethylene remained nearly constant at 0.13−0.14 and 0.10−0.11 over Ca27-HZSM-5, respectively; more narrow than the corresponding range of yields for HZSM-5 (0.10−0.14 and 0.08−0.12). FT-IR results confirmed the formation of oxygenated and poly alkyl aromatic species in the carbon deposits. TG results indicated that oxygenate coke was formed and converted to heavier poly aromatic coke species with time. Increasing Ca in the porous structure of HZSM-5 may lead to heavier aromatic carbonaceous deposits. In general, Ca content positively affected activity through modification of the density, strength, and accessibility of Brønsted and Lewis acid sites. Long-term MTO activity test of HZSM-5 with Ca/Al = 27 showed stable performance over 100 h, although with an oscillatory feature.

2021, 49(10): 1504-1512. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5813(21)60159-7

The effects of K, Ru or La promoters on the structure, surface area, crystal phase, and catalytic behavior during FT synthesis of carburized and uncarburized fused Fe catalysts were studied by XRD, XPS, TPD, N2-physisorption and catalytic reaction evaluation techniques. Addition of K improved selectivity of C5+ products for both the carburized and uncarburized catalysts. Addition of Ru suppressed catalytic activity of the carburized catalyst, but had little influence on the uncarburized one. Addition of La led to the encapsulation of the iron carbide, which consequently severely inhibited the carburization and decreased the activity. While Ru and La promote the formation of light components due to their ability to promote hydrogen adsorption. The performance of the reaction in the experiment indicated that the U-K catalyst had the best product distribution, in which the methane selectivity was 4.04%, and the C5+ selectivity was 75.84%.

2021, 49(10): 1522-1530. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5813(21)60158-5

The n-hexane was used as a model compound to study the catalytic cracking behavior of light hydrocarbon in HZSM-5 zeolites, and the law of product selectivity of real acid-catalyzed reaction was investigated by analyzing the product distributions. The results showed that no pyrolysis reaction was found at 300 ℃. Only the acid catalytic reaction took place by the mechanism of carbocation, whose activity was positively correlated to the amount of Brønsted (B) acid sites. The selectivity of ethane, ethylene and propane was negatively correlated, while that of propylene was positively correlated with the Si/Al ratios and catalyst to oil ratios, suggesting that low acid density might be more favorable for monomolecular cracking reactions. It was worth nothing that the total selectivity of C4 products was much higher than that of C2 products. Combined with the quantum chemistry calculation results, it could be confirmed that the super-stability of ${{\rm{C}}_{{2}}}{\rm{H}}_{{5}}^ {{+}}$ carbenium ion from the monomolecular cracking of n-hexane made it difficult to produce ethylene and ethane through hydrogen transfer reaction. It’s easier to form a C8 carbenium ion (${{\rm{C}}_{{8}}}{\rm{H}}_{{{19}}}^ {{+}}$) with another n-hexane molecule, and then to generate more C4 products. These results revealed the nature of the low selectivity of ethylene in light hydrocarbon catalytic cracking products. It could be concluded that the product selectivity of catalytic cracking of light hydrocarbons could be modulated by controlling reaction paths depending on the catalyst acid properties and the catalyst to oil ratios. This work will provide important theoretical support for the catalyst design and process development of naphtha catalytic cracking.
2021, 49(10): 1531-1539. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5813(21)60095-6

2021, 49(10): 1540-1548. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5813(21)60141-X

Pt/C, PtBi(95∶5)/C, Pd/C, and PdBi(95∶5)/C were synthesized by the sodium borohydride reducing method to produce metal nanoparticles with advanced electronic properties to enhance the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) mechanism. The Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that a small Bi content does not affect the nanoparticle size PdBi/C; in contrast, it does affect the PtBi ones. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a lattice parameter modification by Bi dope in Pt crystalline structure. Furthermore, the ATR-FTIR results indicated the suppression of carbonate formation and increment in acetate production. The results of polarization and power density curves on DEFC, the material PtBi/C presented the more high power density, almost six times bigger than Pt/C. PtBi/C also has the highest current density (44 mW/cm2) and the lowest onset potential (−0.6 V) in linear sweep voltammetry experiments. It also has the highest final current density in current-time experiments. Hence, PtBi/C is a very promising electrocatalyst for DEFC.

2021, 49(10): 1558-1566. doi: 10.1016/S1872-5813(21)60154-8

For the Fe-based catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, the reduction and activation process of α-Fe2O3 precursor has a significant effect on the catalytic performance. As a crystalline material, the reduction and activation of α-Fe2O3 is assuredly influenced by the exposed crystal plane; however, there is a lack of necessary research in this regard. In this work, α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals of three different morphologies, viz., pseudo-cubic, hexagonal-plate and rhombohedra, were synthesized, which mainly expose the crystal planes of (102), (001) and (104), respectively. The evolution of α-Fe2O3 crystal structure was then investigated in CO atmosphere by using the Operando Raman spectroscopy (ORS). The results show that the α-Fe2O3 (001) plane has a better reductive activity in comparison to the (104) and (102) planes. The SEM, TEM, XPS and XRD characterization and DFT calculation results reveal that CO2 desorption is a decisive step for the reduction of α-Fe2O3; owing to the weak binding ability of (001) crystal plane to oxygen atoms, the desorption of CO2 on the (001) crystal plane is much easier, which can promote the reduction process.