摘要: Waste gasification has the potential to contribute to China’s transition towards carbon neutrality and zero waste cities via the recirculation of waste as secondary carbon feedstock for the production of chemicals with lower/and or zero carbon footprint, green hydrogen with zero carbon footprint and CO2-neutral synthetic liquid fuels. With China’s significant coal gasification capacity and associated experiences and expertise, Coal-to-X could act as a bridge to Waste-to-X for carbon intensive sectors such as the waste management, chemical production and mobility sectors. To illustrate the opportunities in these areas, this article presented highlights from dynamic global developments in waste gasification, focusing on pioneering industrial developments in Germany between 1980−2000’s as well as current international developments. Lessons learnt from previous and current waste gasification project deployment are shared and enabled the identification of problems which will have to be addressed in the transition from coal gasification towards mono-waste gasification technologies. Additionally, a qualitative evaluation of gasification technologies pointed to the strengths and weaknesses of fixed-bed, fluidized-bed and entrained-flow gasification principles in their application for waste gasification.
摘要: The isomerization and hydroformylation of butene under the catalysis of Rh-BIPHEPHOS were investigated by varying the butene feed and reaction temperature. The results indicate that in the presence of syngas, with 1-butene as feed, more isomerization product (i.e. 2-butene) is detected in comparison with the hydroformylation products, whereas with 2-butene as the feed, the hydroformylation is superior to isomerization. Due to the equilibrium limit between 1-butene and 2-butene, the increase of temperature shows a great positive effect on the isomerization reaction. Furthermore, under the catalysis of Rh-BIPHEPHOS, more n-pentanal is always formed than i-pentanal, as the larger bite angle of BIPHEPHOS restricts the intermediate rearrangement in the formation of i-pentanal.
摘要: The chemical and mineralogical characteristics of fly ash from a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) in China and the influence of processing parameters on heavy metals removal during leaching were investigated in this work. The fly ash particles had complex surface structure with limited specific surface area. The alkali chloride and metal salts in MSWI fly ash showed evidently impact on leaching efficiency. Metal leachability was related to their properties and speciation in fly ash. Water-soluble salts such as KCl, NaCl and CaCl2 in fly ash were easily washed out. In this study, removal efficiency by water washing was achieved to 93.1% for Cl, 41.4% for Na, 48.5% for K and 24.8% for Ca, respectively. Mineralogical analysis also revealed change of fly ash mineral phases and specification distribution after water washing. Under liquid to solid ratio of 40∶1 L/kg and treatment time of 120 min, the leaching process achieved high dropping yields of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) concentrations for Cu, Zn Cd and Pb (80%−100%), moderate dropping yields for As (30%−80%) and relatively low dropping yields of Ni (< 30%). In addition, heavy metals such as Pb and Zn in fly ash with twice water washing treatment at a low liquid-solid ratio could reach lower TCLP concentrations. The result indicated that the combination process of twice water washing and one acid washing could significantly reduce the environmental risk of MSWI fly ash.